The Element Carbon

The Element – Carbon

Atomic Number: 6
Atomic Weight: 12.0107
Element Classification: Non-Metal
Period Number: 2
Group Number: 14
Group Name: None
Density (Graphite): 2.2670g/cm³
Phase at Room Temperature: Solid
Melting Point (K): 3820
Boiling Point (K): 5100
Appearance (Carbon Black): Dense, Black
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 5.3
Ionic Radius: 16 (+4e) 260 (-4e)
Specific Heat (@20°C J/g mol): 0.711
Debye Temperature (°K): 1860
Pauling Negativity Number: 2.55
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 1085.7
Oxidation States: 4, 2, -4
Lattice Structure: Diagonal
Lattice Constant (Å): 3.57
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale): 2.55
Atomic Radius: 70 pm
Atomic Radius (calc.): 67 pm
Covalent Radius: 77 pm
Van der Waals Radius: 170 pm
Magnetic Ordering: Diamagnetic
Thermal Conductivity (300 K) (Graphite): (119–165) W·m−1·K−1
Thermal Conductivity (300 K) (Crystallized Carbon): (900–2320) W·m−1·K−1
Thermal Diffusivity (300 K) (Crystallized Carbon): (503–1300) mm²/s
Mohs Hardness (Graphite): 1-2
Mohs Hardness (Crystallized Carbon): 10.0
CAS Registry Number: 7440-44-0
Ionization Energy: 11.260 eV
Oxidation States: +4, +2, -4
Electron Shell Configuration: 1s²
  2s² 2p²

References: Los Alamos National Laboratory (2001), Crescent Chemical Company (2001), Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry (1952)

What’s in a name? From the Latin word for charcoal, carbo.

Say what? Carbon is pronounced as KAR-ben.